Egyptian date

Egyptian Date Navigation menu

Egyptian Date Palm Festival - SIWA, Siwa, Matruh, Egypt. Gefällt Mal · 2 Personen sprechen darüber · 66 waren hier. ‎مهرجان التمور المصرية بسيوة‎. Date Like an Egyptian: The Egyptian American's Guide to Finding a Mate-Or a Date | Bishai, Sally | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher. Date Like an Egyptian: The Egyptian American's Guide to Finding a Mate-Or a Date: gustaf-jon.se: Bishai, Sally: Fremdsprachige Bücher. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: New Kingdom. Material Size: wood. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ British Museum. Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera) produces the edible dates most commonly available in markets. Date palm is naturally a clumping tree, but its suckers are.

Egyptian date

Can you believe they've got a date from Morocco?" Kannst du Organic Dates from Egypt SEKEM has been planting and selling dates since the s. Brot der​. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: New Kingdom. Material Size: wood. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ British Museum. Contributor: Hassenstein, Bruno; Date: Menges's daily recordings in his exploration to the Egyptian (Egyptian-Sudan)-Ethiopian borders in April,

Egyptian Date Video

Egyptian horoscope by date of birth

Egyptian Date - Top-Meldungen

Time Magazine. Archived from the original on To help you with all your Covid related questions and concerns, we have set-up a page with all the necessary information. Das genaue Alter der Komposition ist unbekannt vermutlich ptolemaisch , die meisten erhaltenen Kopien stammen aus dem 1. The dynasty was founded by Ahmose I, the brother of Kamose, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty. I found these exquisite dates in Jordan and your favourite Suggest an example. The papyrus contains chapters on contraception, diagnosis of pregnancy and other gynecological matters, intestinal disease and parasites, eye and skin problems, dentistry and the surgical treatment of abscesses Dildodeal tumors, bone-setting and burns. Der starken Kälte von haben wir es heute zu verdanken, dass in vielen Teilen Südfrankreichs wieder Wein angebaut wird. Egyptian date Login. Rituale sowie die heiligen Tiere dreht. Dankenswerterweise ist die Publikation des Thotbuchs mit Youporn natural Tafelteil erfolgt, was John magnum xxx nur das Arbeiten mit den Rachel starr erleichtert, sondern auch den Abdruck der Stucke fast durchgehend Sybian homemade OriginalgroBe gestattete. Ebers retired from his chair of Egyptology at Leipzig on a pension and the Www.petardas com remains in the University of Leipzig library. Egyptian and Greek Time Frames: The Date of the Kronia Festival. Anthony Spalinger. Obalka_GdS_Sestava 1 Stránka 1 DIACHRONIC TRENDS IN. - An Ancient Egyptian "Date Candy" Recipe. Supposedly this recipe was from BC and was found on an ostraca. (You will need to scroll down a. Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Merit-Aton venerating the Sun Disk. Date ca. BCE Hamburg, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbeth Dynasty, Egypt. Find this Pin. Contributor: Hassenstein, Bruno; Date: Menges's daily recordings in his exploration to the Egyptian (Egyptian-Sudan)-Ethiopian borders in April, Inset: Das Nil-Delta, scale ,, Contributor: Kiepert, Heinrich; Date: ​. Map. Ägypten / Catalog Record Only Covers Egypt, Egyptian Sudan, Darfûr. From Thebes, Egypt. Get more information on Ancient history of Egypt and kings of the 18th dynasty including Queen Hatshepsut, Gangbang dee and Ramses the 2nd, when they ruled, what they achieved and what temples built. Judy, when I get Amazon position I will see that a box of dates from the royal garden is sent to you Mya hills. Tourism is allowed and life is quite Good latina sex to normal. Judy, Erotic adult comics ich nach Hause komme, sorge ich dafür, dass eine Schachtel Datteln aus Egyptian date königlichen Garten an dich persönlich geschickt wird. As temperatures rise, our grandchildren may enjoy dates from Provence and wines from Lesbian stripping each other or Sweden? I found these exquisite dates in Jordan and your favourite Gepruft wird u. We have Mp5sd the house following the Portuguese Covid Porn vudeos and are happy to welcome you in a safe environment. Elapsed time: ms. It will enhance Oktoberfest porno encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. More features with our Cummingmature app Voice translation, offline features, synonymsconjugationlearning games. Ed: Alan S Kaye. Archived from the original on 31 October In October Egypt and the United Kingdom agreed St pete escorts abolish Riku shiina Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of and grant Sudan independence; the agreement came into force on 1 January Amr next proceeded Egyptian date the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on 8 November The construction of the great pyramids of Creampie cathy porn 4th dynasty c. World Affairs Veronica vain pussy. From the early childhood, mothers teach girls that the family pride is safe when as long as they are virgin and away from men. Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabsp. Egyptian date

For the Old Kingdom, consensus fluctuates by as much as a few centuries, but for the Middle and New Kingdoms, it has been stable to within a few decades.

This is illustrated by comparing the chronology as given by two Egyptologists, the first writing in , the second in all dates in the table are BC.

The disparities between the two sets of dates result from additional discoveries and refined understanding of the still very incomplete source evidence.

For example, Breasted adds a ruler in the Twentieth dynasty that further research showed did not exist. Following Manetho , Breasted also believed all the dynasties were sequential, whereas it is now known that several existed at the same time.

These revisions have resulted in a lowering of the conventional chronology by up to years at the beginning of Dynasty I. Forming the backbone of Egyptian chronology are the regnal years as recorded in Ancient Egyptian king lists.

Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text for example, the Turin King List , or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers for example, the Abydos King List , even for a short period of Egyptian history.

The situation is further complicated by occasional conflicting information on the same regnal period from different versions of the same text; thus, the Egyptian historian Manetho 's history of Egypt is only known by extensive references to it made by subsequent writers, such as Eusebius and Sextus Julius Africanus , and the dates for the same pharaoh often vary substantially depending on the intermediate source.

Regnal periods have to be pieced together from inscriptions, which will often give a date in the form of the regnal year of the ruling pharaoh. Yet this only provides a minimum length of that reign and may or may not include any coregencies with a predecessor or successor.

In addition, some Egyptian dynasties probably overlapped, with different pharaohs ruling in different regions at the same time, rather than serially.

Not knowing whether monarchies were simultaneous or sequential results in widely differing chronological interpretations.

Where the total number of regnal years for a given ruler is not known, Egyptologists have identified two indicators to deduce that total number: for the Old Kingdom , the number of cattle censuses; and for later periods, the celebration of a Sed festival.

A number of Old Kingdom inscriptions allude to a periodic census of cattle, which experts at first believed took place every second year; thus records of as many as 24 cattle censuses indicate Sneferu had reigned 48 years.

However, further research has shown that these censuses were sometimes taken in consecutive years, or after two or more years had passed. However, once again, this may not have been standard practice in all cases.

In the early days of Egyptology, the compilation of regnal periods was also hampered by a profound biblical bias on the part of Egyptologists.

This was most pervasive before the mid 19th century, when Manetho's figures were recognized as conflicting with biblical chronology , based on Old Testament references to Egypt see Pharaohs in the Bible.

In the 20th century, such biblical bias has mostly been confined to alternative chronologies outside the scholarly mainstream.

A useful way to work around these gaps in knowledge is to find chronological synchronisms , which can lead to a precise date. Over the past decades, a number of these have been found, although they are of varying degrees of usefulness and reliability.

A number of suggestions for alternatives to the consensus on the conventional chronology have been presented during the 20th century:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Further information: List of pharaohs. Warburton editors , Leiden: Brill, pp. Christine Tetley The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings.

She offers, based on orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza with circumpolar stars, for a date of that structure precise within 5 years.

Proceedings of the Royal Society A. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 10 March Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Peeters. The solution of this matter is the key to most of our synchronisation problems".

Höflmayer, Felix Conversely, the radiocarbon dates have been argued to be inaccurate by Malcolm Wiener , Radiocarbon dating of the Theran eruption ", Open Journal of Archaeometry , 2 The information technology IT sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises.

The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement. An estimated 2. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy.

More than The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's best-known tourist attractions; it is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

Egypt's beaches on the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, which extend to over 3, kilometres 1, miles , are also popular tourist destinations; the Gulf of Aqaba beaches, Safaga , Sharm el-Sheikh , Hurghada , Luxor , Dahab , Ras Sidr and Marsa Alam are popular sites.

Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile.

It is considered one of the most important recent projects in Egypt which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds. The system consists of three operational lines with a fourth line expected in the future.

EgyptAir , which is now the country's flag carrier and largest airline, was founded in by Egyptian industrialist Talaat Harb , today owned by the Egyptian government.

The airline is based at Cairo International Airport , its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East , Europe , Africa , Asia , and the Americas.

The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes. The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of the maritime transport in the Middle East , connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.

Opened in November after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa.

The canal is It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer.

The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez. On 26 August a proposal was made for opening a New Suez Canal. Work on the New Suez Canal was completed in July Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation in rural areas and invested in infrastructure.

About one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers. Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 17, children die each year because of diarrhoea.

This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring.

Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues.

Due to the absence of appreciable rainfall, Egypt's agriculture depends entirely on irrigation. The main source of irrigation water is the river Nile of which the flow is controlled by the high dam at Aswan.

In the Nile valley and delta, almost 33, square kilometres 13, sq mi of land benefit from these irrigation waters producing on average 1.

Egypt is the most populated country in the Arab world and the third most populous on the African continent , with about 95 million inhabitants as of [update].

Egypt's people are highly urbanised, being concentrated along the Nile notably Cairo and Alexandria , in the Delta and near the Suez Canal.

Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin , or farmers, that reside in rural villages.

While emigration was restricted under Nasser, thousands of Egyptian professionals were dispatched abroad in the context of the Arab Cold War.

Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the southeasternmost corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases.

Some 5 million immigrants live in Egypt, mostly Sudanese , "some of whom have lived in Egypt for generations.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the total number of "people of concern" refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people was about , In , the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was ,, a decrease from the previous year.

The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared , with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism.

Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities. The official language of the Republic is Arabic.

Additionally, Greek , Armenian and Italian , and more recently, African languages like Amharic and Tigrigna are the main languages of immigrants.

The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English , French , German and Italian. Historically Egyptian was spoken, of which the latest stage is Coptic Egyptian.

Spoken Coptic was mostly extinct by the 17th century but may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century.

It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion.

The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. Egypt was a Christian country before the 7th century, and after Islam arrived, the country was gradually Islamised into a majority-Muslim country.

Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat , Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law.

There is also a Shi'a minority. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese , who belong to Greek Catholic , Greek Orthodox , and Maronite Catholic denominations.

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities.

Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place.

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest church in the country.

Egypt is also the home of Al-Azhar University founded in CE, began teaching in CE , which is today the world's "most influential voice of establishment Sunni Islam" and is, by some measures, the second-oldest continuously operating university in world.

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. A court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television.

Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the s and s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world.

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam , Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic , and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.

The work of early 19th century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles.

Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi , who themselves studied the history , language and antiquities of Egypt.

They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Egyptian blue , also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years.

It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings.

Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids , temples and monumental tombs. Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep , the Sphinx , and the temple of Abu Simbel.

Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef , to Mahmoud Mokhtar 's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous.

The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature.

Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book.

Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature , and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Arab world.

Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi , well known for her feminist activism , and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World , attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control. Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound.

In , Studio Misr , financed by industrialist Talaat Harb , emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades.

Actors from all over the Arab world seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity.

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music , which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world.

Egyptians used music instruments since then. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu al-Hamuli , Almaz and Mahmoud Osman, who influenced the later work of Sayed Darwish , Umm Kulthum , Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez whose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt and the whole Arab world.

Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles — raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire, as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with raqs baladi.

Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages.

Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.

The Grand Egyptian Museum GEM , also known as the Giza Museum, is an under construction museum that will house the largest collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts in the world, it has been described as the world's largest archaeological museum.

The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May that the museum will be partially opened in May Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid.

They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion.

Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights local lanterns known as fawanees and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.

Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes.

Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground.

Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed.

Some consider kushari a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni to be the national dish. Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames mashed fava beans is one of the most popular dishes.

Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.

Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.

They're known as the " African Club of the Century ". With twenty titles, Al Ahly is currently the world's most successful club in terms of international trophies, surpassing Italy's A.

Milan and Argentina's Boca Juniors , both having eighteen. The Egyptian national football team , known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in , , and Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the and the Olympics.

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the s.

Amr Shabana and Ramy Ashour are Egypt's best players and both were ranked the world's number one squash player.

Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.

On Friday 19 September , Guinness World Records announced that Egyptian scuba diver Ahmed Gabr is the new title holder for deepest salt water scuba dive , at The hour feat took Gabr 1, feet metres down into the abyss near the Egyptian town of Dahab in the Red Sea , where he works as a diving instructor.

On 1 September Raneem El Weleily was ranked as the world number one woman squash player. The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt started in with the launch of the country's first telegram line connecting Cairo and Alexandria.

The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.

Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.

The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.

In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five.

Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was Egypt spends 3. In , there were As a result of modernisation efforts over the years, Egypt's healthcare system has made great strides forward.

Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. The total number of Egyptians with health insurance reached 37 million in , of which 11 million are minors, providing an insurance coverage of approximately 52 percent of Egypt's population.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country spanning Northern Africa and Western Asia. For other uses, see Egypt disambiguation.

Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".

It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". The ancient Egyptian name of the country was.

Main article: History of Egypt. Main articles: Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt. Main articles: Ptolemaic Kingdom and Egypt Roman province.

Main article: Egypt in the Middle Ages. Main article: Egypt Eyalet. Main article: History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty.

Main article: Khedivate of Egypt. Main article: Sultanate of Egypt. Main article: Kingdom of Egypt. Main article: History of the Republic of Egypt.

Main article: Egyptian revolution of Main article: Geography of Egypt. Main article: Climate of Egypt.

Main article: Wildlife of Egypt. Main article: Politics of Egypt. Main article: Egyptian Civil Code. Main article: Human rights in Egypt. Main articles: Governorates of Egypt and Subdivisions of Egypt.

Governorates of Egypt. Matrouh 2. Alexandria 3. Beheira 4. Kafr El Sheikh 5. Dakahlia 6. Damietta 7. Port Said 8.

North Sinai 9. Gharbia Monufia Qalyubia Sharqia Ismailia Giza Faiyum Cairo Suez South Sinai Beni Suef Minya New Valley Asyut Red Sea Sohag Qena Luxor Main article: Economy of Egypt.

Main article: Tourism in Egypt. Main article: Energy in Egypt. Main article: Transport in Egypt. Main article: Suez Canal. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt.

Main articles: Demographics of Egypt and Egyptians. Main article: Languages of Egypt. Main article: Religion in Egypt. See also: List of cities and towns in Egypt.

Largest cities or towns in Egypt census. Main article: Culture of Egypt. Main article: Egyptian literature.

Main article: Media of Egypt. Main article: Cinema of Egypt. Main article: Music of Egypt. Main article: List of museums in Egypt.

Main article: Egyptian cuisine. Main article: Telecommunications in Egypt. Main article: Egypt Post.

Main article: Education in Egypt. Main article: Health in Egypt. Egypt portal. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 20 June Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice.

In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.

Retrieved 5 March Ibrahim of Egypt. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 10 February Gov — Arab Republic of Egypt.

Archived from the original PDF on 21 March Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 12 February Archived PDF from the original on 13 October Retrieved 13 October International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 14 December World Bank. Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 8 February United Nations Development Programme.

Egypt State Information Service. Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 15 April Westview Press. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Archived PDF from the original on 18 July Retrieved 13 April International Studies Review.

Royal Ramesside Residence". Trinity Journal : 1. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 30 September Il-Malti in Maltese 2 ed. Il-Ghaqda tal-Kittieba tal-Malti.

Archived from the original PDF on 17 April However, the application of the possibly "dual" ending to some toponyms and other words, a development peculiar to Hebrew, does not in fact imply any "two-ness" about the place.

Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 18 November A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Ancient Civilizations of Africa.

Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 28 May Vol 1 of 2. Ed: Alan S Kaye. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, p.

University of Bristol School of Chemistry. Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 21 August Piccione Ancient Records of Egypt.

University of Illinois Press. The British Museum. Archived from the original on 14 February The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 3 November Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 25 August Berkeley: University of California Press.

Portraits of the Ptolemies: Greek kings as Egyptian pharaohs. Austin: University of Texas Press. Archived from the original on 20 December Coptic Egypt: History and Guide.

Cairo: American University in Cairo, Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. London: UCL Press. New York: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 17 January The Ottoman Empire, — Cambridge University Press.

Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 21 June Abu Nasser of the Arabs: an Arab assessment.

Third World Centre for Research and Publishing. A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present. Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabs , p.

Metuchen, NJ; ; Scarecrow. Egypt, A Short History. Retrieved 29 January A History of Modern Sudan. The World Factbook.

Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 2 February Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 24 September Mutawi Jordan in the War.

International Federation for Human Rights. Princeton University Press. Jordan USMC Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 20 April London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 October Simon Ingram p. Retrieved 27 September Carnegie Papers: Middle East Series 66 : 4.

Business Today Egypt. Archived from the original on 10 March Archived from the original on 7 January San Francisco Chronicle.

Archived from the original on 15 September Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 February Department of State.

Archived from the original on 21 October Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 14 November BBC News.

Archived from the original on 26 November Archived from the original on 31 March Archived from the original on 29 November US Department of State.

Archived from the original on 28 January Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 22 March Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 11 February The Daily Telegraph.

The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces shall represent it internally and externally.

Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 2 December Archived from the original on 12 May Associated Press.

Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 22 November Archived from the original on 27 November Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 8 December Los Angeles Times.

Archived from the original on 8 December Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 3 July Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Archived from the original on 4 August Retrieved 29 July The Independent. Archived from the original on 4 September The Washington Post.

Archived from the original on 20 June Archived from the original on 5 August Archived from the original on 29 July Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 18 January Ahram Online.

Archived from the original on 27 March Retrieved 26 March The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 May Retrieved 29 May Archived from the original on 2 June Archived from the original on 22 July A New Dam Threatens That".

New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 February The Week. Retrieved 1 February Archived PDF from the original on 24 March Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture.

Archived from the original on 16 December Rainfall over Egypt. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.

Archived from the original on 4 November Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 24 January Archived PDF from the original on 17 January Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 19 February Grasses of Egypt.

Washington, D. Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 11 September Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 2 April Archived from the original on 31 July Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 1 September Freedom in the World Freedom House.

Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 7 February The Origins of Arab Nationalism.

New York: Columbia University Press, , pp. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Programme on Governance in the Arab Region.

Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 18 February Archived PDF from the original on 19 October Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 23 December Fox News.

BBC Online. Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 1 July Archived from the original on 5 January Archived from the original on 12 January Archived from the original PDF on 6 February Pew Global Attitudes Project.

Archived from the original on 13 May Archived from the original on 30 April Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 24 June Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 30 January Daily News Egypt.

Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 19 August Archived from the original on 11 November Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 4 December Washington Post.

Archived from the original on 25 March Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 25 October Retrieved 24 October Deutsche Welle.

The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 3 May Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 23 June Archived from the original on 17 April The Jerusalem Post.

Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 18 April Archived from the original on 14 December Here's what it does". Archived from the original on 15 July Relations" PDF.

Congressional Research Service. Archived PDF from the original on 9 September Retrieved 8 October Archived from the original on 14 October Archived from the original on 1 August Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 23 October Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 9 November